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Phlegraean Fields

  • Monuments - Campania

The Phlegraean Fields are a large volcanic area situated to the west of Naples, Italy. It was declared a regional park in 2003. Lying mostly underwater, the area of the caldera consists of 24 craters and volcanic edifices.

Hydrothermal activity can be observed at Lucrino, Agnano and the town of Pozzuoli. There are also effusive gaseous manifestations in the Solfatara crater, the mythological home of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. This area is monitored by the Vesuvius Observatory.

The Flavian Amphitheatre
The Amphitheatrum Flavium is the third in size in Italy after the Colosseum and the Capuan Amphitheatrum; it was built during the reign of Vespasian and was inaugurated by Titus. It had three levels for hosting spectators and big subterranenas that was used as a backstage or to cage the animals utilized in the games.

Tempio di Serapide
Originally interpreted as a temple dedicated to the Egyptian god Serapis, after the discovery of a sculpture representing the god, the complex is actually a public market, probably built between the end of the I century and beginning of the II century A.C., in the area the ancients used to call Emporium, on the northen coast of Puteoli’s Acropolis promontory. Restored under the Severan dynasty (beginning of the III century A.C.), the complex, with the entrance towards the sea, develops on a wide area (75 meters long and 58 meters wide), surrounded by porticoes with granite or cipolin columns, on which stood many workshops that, probably, sold meat exedra, preceded by four majestic columns, three of which are still present. The ruins of the floor and of the marble covering of the public toilets suggest the extraordinary sumptuousness of the monument. On the columns are still visible the erosion caused by the earth’s lowerings and elevation, due to the bradyseism, a characteristic phenomenon of the Phlegrean area.

Il Lago d'Averno - Pozzuoli
Di forma ellittica, con una profondità media 10 mt. e quella massima di 35 mt., il lago d'Averno giace all'interno di un vulcano spento nato circa 4.000 anni fa. Il nome deriva dal greco Aornon ossia luogo senza uccelli. Si narra che tale assenza era dovuta al fatto che le acque del lago esalassero dei particolari gas che non permettessero la vita agli uccelli.Nella storia il lago d'averno è la località flegrea maggiormente evocato da Omero, Virgilio e il culto dell'oltretomba, perché ritenuta l'ingresso all'Ade.
Virgilio, infatti nel VI libro dell'Eneide collocò nel lago l'entrata agli inferi

Rione Terra - Pozzuoli
Gli scavi straordinari in corso sull’acropoli del Rione Terra hanno rivelato l’intero tessuto della città romana, conservato intatto nel sottosuolo.
Il decumano di via Duomo, con il suo basolato al di sotto della strada moderna che ne ricalca fedelmente l’andamento, è la strada di collegamento con la zona pianeggiante di fronte alla collina del Rione Terra. Gli scavi hanno localizzato un altro decumano, tangente al lato posteriore del Capitolium (il ‘tempio di Augusto’) in tufo, e lungo il percorso sotterraneo sono stati rinvenuti edifici, per lo più magazzini e tabernae.
Lungo il cardo, ripreso dal percorso dell’attuale via San Procolo, si collocano edifici pubblici, terme e tabernae, in parte degli edifici sono evidenti le trasformazioni e segni di crolli ed incendi, forse conseguenza del sisma del 62 d.C. Negli edifici romani si continua ad abitare per tutto il Medioevo, quando il promontorio, ritornato ad essere una piccola cittadella fortificata, prese il nome di ‘Terra’.
Il monumento più significativo dell’area è il ‘tempio di Augusto’, tornato in luce dopo l’incendio del Duomo barocco di San Procolo – che riutilizzava le strutture – nel 1964.

La Solfatara - Pozzuoli
Spanning approximately 33 hectares, it is a wildlife preservation site which offers the starting point for an interesting stroll with the presence, in addition to the renowned vulcanic phenomena such as the fumaroles, the moffetes and small mud volcanoes, of woods and the Mediterranean maquis areas as well as natural, geological, botanical and wildlife wonders.
hours: open from 8.30 am to 7 pm

Museo Archeologico dei Campi Flegrei - Baia
“The burning fields”, which indicates the presence of volcanic activity that has never completely stopped, constitute one of the greatest and most fascinating archaeological areas in the world. The Campi Flegrei Archaeological Museum, recently opened in the splendid architectural and panoramic context of the Aragonese Castle, houses testimonies from Baia and Miseno, which is the “Sacellum of the Augustales”, in Miseno, and the famous nymphaeum complex at Punta Epitaffio, the promontory that faces the East and which marks the end of the Baia gulf.
opening hours
from 09:00 to 60´ min. before the sunset
closed on monday
Last admission one hour before closing time.

Baia Archaeological Park
The Baia Archaeological Park includes the ruins of bathing and hydraulic systems (the “temples” in the world of baths, of Mercury, Venus, Diana, and the baths of Sosandra); the “Cento Camerelle”, the “Piscina Mirabile”, the tomb of Agrippina; the military port of Miseno; the theatre; the monumental tombs: an unparalleled archaeological patrimony.

Scavi di Cuma
The city of Cuma is the most Ancient Western Greek colony, founded by colonists from the neighbouring island of "Pithekoussai" (Ischia). Together with the signs on the octagonal Baptistery in the Early Christian Church, there are two great temples testifying the Greek phase, transformed into Churches during the Middle Ages: the "Temple of Apollo", retains the podium and traces of the Roman recostruction, and the "Temple of Jupiter", on the highest peak of the Acropolis.
Cuma (Cumae) became a sacred place, especially after Virgil's tales: here the "Sybil of Cuma", prophetic priestess of Apollo, revealed the future to Aeneas. The "Cave of Sybil" (Antro della Sibilla), since Ancient time, is the most famous and mysterious place of the Phlegraean Fields: about 5 metres tall and over 130 metres long. Totally dug in the tuff, the cave ends in a large rectangular room that serves as a vestibule to an area with three niches, which was thought to be the home of the Sybil of Cuma.
At the foot of the Acropolis is the "Forum" and beneath are concealed the remains of the Agorà of the Greek town. In this area there is also a great Spa complex, restored several times up to Late Ancient period, with two entrances; the East entrance took in a vestibule communicating with the "frigidarium", while the other one faced an open space of the gymnasium.
Most important is the great Temple of Jupiter, built on the site of a temple of the Arcaic age, later transformed into a "Capitolium" and restored in various stages until the Roman Imperial era, the period of the colossal marble cult statues, now on display in Naples Archaeological Museum. Outside the fortified city walls, there is the northern "Necropolis", which includes a Prince's tomb, whose furnishings are found in Naples Archaeological Museum, a great underground "tholos" tomb and a monumental tomb of the Roman Imperial era, which thought forth human remains whose crania had been replaced by wax masks.
On the opposite side of the town, there is the Amphitheatre, built in stonework which is one of the oldest in Campania and the Roman world.
Times
All days from 9.00 to one hour before sunset
1 January, 1 May and 25 December closed

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